New Media Presence in the Integration Process of Refugees in Istanbul
ÖzetFor the last three years, the public debate has been dominated by the issue of refugees, trying to make their way from areas of Middle East into Europe. Since the signing of the EU-Turkish agreement regarding refugees in March 2016, the majority of these individuals has been diverted to Turkey. The process of the rapid migration of refugees in such a short period of time and their efforts to hold on to new living space have led to serious integration problems in terms of both their own and the host local communities. While facing new challenges arriving from the integration process, cultural differences to the hosting society, and the search for a new identity, it is crucial to realize the importance of new media that plays an important role in their attempt to acclimatize. Interaction competence of the new media has the capacity to help refugees in their integration process. Local or national media gives a certain portrayal of refugees and their home countries. This portrayal can be manipulated in different ways by the reasons of national and international political concerns. Therefore, understanding media trends and the possibilities of new media are crucial in understanding a refugee’s political and social perspective.With the advancement of new media applications and creative technologies aiming to help integration process of refugees in their newfound asylums, this article focuses on exploring the existing communicational habits of refugees in new media, and the possibilities that new media offer to ease their integration with the Turkish society in Istanbul. The study analyzes results drawn from an empirical observation and in-depth interviews conducted with a varied group of refugees living in Istanbul, examining their interaction with new media concerning key aspects that aid their integration with the local community. Such aspects revolve around matters of personal rights, education, cultural identity, employment, and finding acceptance. Moreover, considering the technological potential offered by new media, this research contemplates the level of connection between the refugees and their home countries. The research presents a qualitative study of 8 refugees from Syria, Iran, and Afghanistan that are currently living in Istanbul. Apart from the interview with 8 refugees, within the scope of the study, Aline Joubert, the media relations coordinator of "Small Projects Istanbul" which is a non-governmental organization working for the benefit of refugees, was also interviewed. The purpose of the study is to investigate the communicational habits and the ways for new media usage of refugees throughout the process of integrating with the local society.
Ager, A., & Strang, A. (2004). Understanding integration: A conceptual framework. Journal of Refugee Studies, 21 (2), 166-191.
Alencar, A. (2018) Refugee integration and social media: a local and experiential perspective, Information, Communication & Society, 21(11), 1588-1603.
Avramov, D. & Cliquet, R. (2005). Integrated Policies on Gender Relations, Ageing and Migration in Europe: Lessons from the Network for Integrated European Population Studies (NIEPS). Leuven-Apeldoorn: Garant.
Bail, C. (2008). The configuration of symbolic boundaries against immigrants in Europe. American Sociological Review, 73, 37-59.
BBC Media Action (2016, July 18). Your phone is now a refugee's phone. Retrieved November 22, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1BLsySgsHM
Bommes M., E. Morawska (2005). International Migration Research Constructions, Omissions and the Promises of Interdisciplinarity. Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations Series, Routledge.
B2B International, What is an in-depth interview? (n.d.). Retrieved July 6, 2018, from https://www.b2binternational.com/research/methods/faq/what-is-a-depth-interview/
Dekker, R., Engbersen, G. (2014). How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration. Global Networks, 14, 401–418.
Dekker, R., Engbersen, G., Faber, M. (2016). The use of online media in migration networks. Population, Space and Place, 22, 539–551.
Dekker, R., Engbersen, G., Klaver, J., Vonk, H. (2018). Smart Refugees: How Syrian Asylum Migrants Use Social Media Information in Migration Decision-Making. Social Media + Society, 4 (1), 1-11.
Emmer, M., Richter, C., Kunst, M. (2016). Flucht 2.0. Mediennutzung durch Flüchtlinge vor, während und nach der Flucht [Flight 2.0. Media use by refugees before, during and after the flight]. Berlin, Germany: Freie Universität Berlin.
Gillespie, M., Ampofo, L., Cheesman, M., Faith, B., Iliadou, E., Issa, A., Osseiran, S., Skleparis, D. (2016). Mapping refugee media journeys. Smartphones and social media networks. Paris: The Open University/France Médias Monde.
Gölcü, A. ve Dağlı, A. N. (2017). Haber Söyleminde ‘Öteki’yi Aramak: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği. Akdeniz İletişim Dergisi. 28, 11-38.
Hand in Hand يداً بــيد (Help refugees in Istanbul). (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2017, from https://www.facebook.com/groups/1801848640041892/?notif_id=1513541207301654¬if_t=group_r2j_approved
Istanbul Helps IH. (n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2017, from https://www.facebook.com/groups/1049775038396362/?notif_id=1513527418691356¬if_t=group_r2j_approved&ref=notif
Leghtas, I. (2017, March 13). The Anniversary of the EU-Turkey Agreement. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.refugeesinternational.org/blog/eu-turkey-agreement
Madianou, M., & Miller, M. (2012). Migration and new media. Transnational families and polymedia. London, England: Routledge.
McGregor, E., & Siegel, M. (2013). Social media and migration research (Working Paper No. 2013-068). Maastricht: United Nations University-Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
Özdemir, F., Öner-Özkan, B. (2016). Türkiye’de sosyal medya kullanıcılarının Suriyeli mültecilere ilişkin sosyal temsilleri. Nesne Psikoloji Dergisi, 4(8), 227-244.
Penninx, R. & B. Garcés-Mascareñas (2014) ‘The concept of integration as an analytical and as a policy concept’ in B. Garcés-Mascareñas & R. Penninx (eds.) Integration of Migrants into What? Integration processes and policies in Europe. Amsterdam: IMISCOE/Amsterdam University Press.
Refugees Resources Istanbul. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.facebook.com/groups/759745720802593/about/
Rodgers, L., Gritten, D., Offer, J., & Asare, P. (2016, March 11). Syria: The story of the conflict. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26116868
Scott, J. C. (2008). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Yale University Press.
Silver, H. (1995). Reconceptualizing social disadvantages: Three paradigms of social exclusion. G. Rodgers, C. Gore ve J. B. Figueiredo (Ed.), Social exclusion: Rhetoric, reality and responses. International Institute for Labour Studies.
UNHCR-1 (2018). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Figures at a Glance. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from http://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html
UNHCR-2 (2018). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Syria emergency. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from http://www.unhcr.org/syria-emergency.html?query=3.3%20billion
Yıldırımalp, S., İslamoğlu, E., İyem, C. (2017). Suriyeli Sığınmacıların Toplumsal Kabul ve Uyum Sürecine İlişkin Bir Araştırma. Bilgi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 35 (2), 107-126.
Zijlstra, J., & Van Liempt, I. (2017). Smart (phone) travelling: Understanding the use and impact of mobile technology on irregular migration journeys. International Journal of Migration and Border Studies, 3, 174–191.
Zlotnik, H. (1990). "International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants", International Migration Review, 24 (2), 372-381.
İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi'nde yayınlanan yazılar, kaynak göstermek koşuluyla alıntılanabilir. Dergide yayınlanan makalelerin yayın hakları İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi'ne aittir. Dergiye gönderilen makalelerin daha önce yayınlanmamış olması gerekir.
Dergide yer alan içerikler, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. ile lisanslanmıştır.