PARASOSYAL İLİŞKİ: KAVRAMSAL BİR ÇERÇEVE

  • Sibel Fügan Varol Beykent Üniversitesi, İletişim Fakültesi, Yeni Medya Bölümü
  • Neşe Kars Tayanç İstanbul Üniversitesi, İletişim Fakültesi, Radyo-TV ve Sinema Bölümü
Anahtar Kelimeler: Parasosyal İlişki, Parasosyal Etkileşim, İzleyici, Medya Karakteri

Özet

İzleyicilerin medya karakterleriyle kurduğu tek taraflı ve hayali ilişki parasosyal ilişki olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Parasosyal ilişki, kitle iletişim aracının, programın, medya karakterinin ve izleyicinin özelliklerine bağlı olarak gelişmekte, farklı yaş, cinsiyet ve eğitim kategorilerinde farklı parasosyal ilişki kalıpları görülmektedir. Yalnızlık, reddedilme korkusu, bağlanma kaygısı, aidiyet ihtiyacı gibi psikolojik faktörlerin ve bilişsel empati kurabilme gibi bilişsel faktörlerin de parasosyal ilişkinin gelişimini etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmalar, parasosyal ilişkinin tek yanlı ve hayali bir ilişki olmanın yanı sıra, ünlü kişilerle kurulma ve gerçek hayattaki ilişkilere benzerlik özelliklerinin bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bilişsel, duygusal ve davranışsal süreçler içinde gelişen parasosyal ilişkinin aşk, arkadaşlık, idolleştirme, aile odaklılık, duygudaşlık, sosyal deneyim yaşama gibi türleri bulunmaktadır. Çalışmanın vardığı sonuçlardan biri, parasosyal ilişkinin medya etkilerini kolaylaştırdığıdır. İzleyiciler yakın bağ kurduğu medya karakterleri üzerinden onların duygu, düşünce ve davranış kalıplarını ve yaşam tarzlarını daha kolay benimsemekte, kendine ve içinde bulunduğu dünyaya ilişkin algısı şekillenmektedir. Parasosyal ilişkinin medya mesajlarına ikna olmayı kolaylaştırma etkisinin bu ilişkinin kurulduğu medya karakteriyle birlikte önerilen politik aday, fikir veya ürünün beğenilirliğini de artırdığı belirlenmiştir. Seçmeli maruz kalma motivasyonu oluşturarak izleyicinin sonraki medya tercihlerini de etkileyen parasosyal ilişkinin olumlu bir etkisi ırk, etnik köken, cinsiyet, cinsel yönelim, din gibi farklı gruplardan kişilerle kurulduğunda o gruplara ilişkin önyargıyı azaltmasıdır.

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Yayınlanmış
2019-06-26